The French Front National at 40

The French Front National (FN) is considered by many analysts to be the prototype of what is now an expansive family of modern radical right political parties in Europe. Founded in 1972, the FN has recently celebrated its 40th anniversary. This e-book by Extremis Project comprises a series of essays by leading academics that examine the party’s past, present and future as it passes this significant milestone under the new leadership of Marine Le Pen. Included are contributions from: Marcel Lubbers, Gilles Ivandi, Jocelyn Evans, James Shields, Cas Mudde, Nonna Mayer, Paul Hainsworth, Bruno Jeanbart and Birgitta Orfali, as well as a foreword by Laurent Bouvet.

Download in epub format.

Download in pdf format.

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Al-Qaeda’s Shari’a Crisis

Strategists propose competing methods for countering radicalization and recruitment to Al-Qaeda-based (AQ) and inspired terrorism. In this article I illustrate the value of a ‘jihad-realist’ method. What is meant by jihad realism? That the military jihad is neither an incidental, accidental, or erroneous religious encumbrance, nor a myth perpetrated by Islamophobia or Orientialism. That in classical orthodox sunni religious and Islamic legal (shari’a) terms—despite general neglect in mainstream popular piety–the military jihad is in fact an undeniable and inarguable religious duty that is a binding religious prescription until the Day of Judgment.

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Announcement regarding Extremis Project

Since the launch of Extremis Project in September 2012, the site has provided a platform for analysis from leading experts – a unique resource in the field. And it has proven to be extremely popular.

Our research and analysis has been covered in national and international media. Our team has provided daily trackers to keep those interested in extremism updated on developments across the globe. We are very proud of what has been achieved by the team, who are committed specialists in their respective fields. Given the cycle of the academic year, we will be breaking for summer recess as of today, while also using this time to reflect on how the site can become sustainable over the longer-term. We will, of course, keep all materials and data online during this period.

For now, we would like to thank you for reading, writing, tweeting and exchanging. We will be back in touch in September 2013.

The Extremis Project team.

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News from South Asia, Friday 7th June 2013

Pakistan:

Times of India: An Indian solider has been killed by Pakistani troops in Jammu and Kashmir. “According to TV reports, Pakistani troops opened fire in Mandi sector of Poonch area.

Heavy firing is still going on at the border, reports say.

Last week Pakistan had violated the ceasefire in the Nowgam region of the state.”

Dawn: Fazlur Rehman’s Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam has cautioned the PML-N government of a ‘complex environment‘ after the JUI withdrew from Taliban talks. “‘Let us try to create a conducive environment for talks and reconciliation, otherwise we will end up fighting insurgency for years and the chance for national building will be lost for decades,’ a JUI-F spokesman Jan Achakzai quoted Maulana Fazlur Rehman as saying.

Talking to Dawn, Mr Achakzai said that Maulana Fazlur Rehman believed that reconciliation with the Taliban would not be possible if coercive measures continued to be taken.”

Afghanistan:

New York Times: A suicide bomber has killed seven Georgian troops in Helmand Province. “It was the second truck bomb attack on a Georgian base in Helmand in less than a month; the earlier bombing on May 13 killed three Georgians, according to Georgian defense officials. Helmand has been the deadliest province for coalition troops.

The Taliban claimed responsibility for the attack in a text message sent to journalists.” x

ABC: A think tank in Kabul has warned that Afghanistan will likely slide into civil war following the withdrawal of NATO in 2014. “The Taliban also see that the withdrawal of the combat forces at least is imminent. It’s not so they don’t attack them anymore but more and more it’s going on against government forces, which is clearly a fight for power, for influence, for showing who’s the strongest force in the country. And in that sense, the government forces, which they need to attack to show that they are stronger and to get into a favourable position for themselves, for the post-2014 period.”

India:

Times of India: A Maoist leader has surrendered in Odisha. “Surya Negi, 30, surrendered before the police on Thursday at the district headquarters town of Sambalpur, about 320 km from state capital Bhubaneswar.

He had joined the organisation in 2003, a senior district police official told IANS.

Negi was involved in as many as 30 criminal cases, including murder, arson, rioting and attack on the police between 2003 and 2007. He was a deputy commander of the Sambalpur-Deogarh-Sundergarh zonal committee of the Maoist organisation.”

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News from Central and Eastern Europe, Friday 7th June 2013

BALKANS

Comment – The Economist: Balkan war-crimes. ‘THE International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), which was set up 20 years ago, is winding down amid controversy. Recent judgments have shocked supporters of the tribunal and left many in the former Yugoslavia stunned. Refik Hodzic, a Bosnian and former spokesman for the ICTY, says that it is no longer “our court” and that it is now undergoing a “baffling self-destruction”.’

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News from Western Europe, Friday 7th June 2013

EUROPE

Video – JN1: EU to discuss having Hezbollah on terror list.

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News from North America, Friday 7th June 2013

New York Times: “The federal government has been secretly collecting information on foreigners overseas for nearly six years from the nation’s largest Internet companies like Google, Facebook and, most recently, Apple, in search of national security threats, the director of national intelligence confirmed Thursday night.

The confirmation of the classified program came just hours after government officials acknowledged a separate seven-year effort to sweep up records of telephone calls inside the United States. Together, the unfolding revelations opened a window into the growth of government surveillance that began under the Bush administration after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, and has clearly been embraced and even expanded under the Obama administration.

Government officials defended the two surveillance initiatives as authorized under law, known to Congress and necessary to guard the country against terrorist threats.”

Reuters: “The House of Representatives on Thursday passed a $39 billion Department of Homeland Security spending bill for next fiscal year that would boost its funding by nearly $1 billion, shifting deeper cuts into other domestic agencies.

The measure passed on a 245-182 vote largely along party lines in the Republican-controlled chamber. It faces a veto threat from President Barack Obama, who considers House Republicans’ $967 billion limit for next fiscal year on spending controlled by Congress to be too low.”

CNN: “Civil rights groups filed a complaint this week against a federal judge in Houston after she allegedly said during a lecture that some minorities are prone to violence.

Judge Edith Jones, who serves on the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals and was a Bush-era Supreme Court frontrunner, allegedly made the comment while speaking on the death penalty to The Federalist Society at the University of Pennsylvania in February.”

BBC News: “Two Massachusetts residents have sued the New York Post, accusing the tabloid of identifying them as suspects in the Boston marathon bombing.

The newspaper published a front-page photo of Salaheddin Barhoum, 16, and Yassine Zaimi, 24, with the headline, Bag Men, three days after the blasts.

The plaintiffs say the story exposed them to ‘scorn, hatred, ridicule, or contempt’.

But the Rupert Murdoch-owned tabloid is standing by its coverage.

The lawsuit – which asks for an unspecified amount of money in compensation – accuses the newspaper of libel, privacy invasion and negligent infliction of emotional distress.”

Comment: CNN: ‘Terrorists target the military’ by Peter Bergen and Jennifer Rowland. “The massacre at Fort Hood is part of a trend of ‘homegrown’ al Qaeda-inspired terrorist attacks and plots against U.S. military targets.

For those individuals who buy in to the late Osama bin Laden’s key claim that the U.S. is at war with Islam, American soldiers who are fighting wars in Muslim countries make compelling targets. Indeed, more than a quarter of all the jihadist extremists who have carried out or plotted attacks inside the United States since the 9/11 attacks have targeted the U.S. military.

Since 9/11, 21 people have plotted to attack American soldiers or military installations, according to a count by the New America Foundation.”

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News from the United Kingdom, Thursday 6th June 2013

The Guardian: Islamophobic hate crime: is it getting worse? ‘From online abuse to fire bombs thrown at mosques, there has been a spike in anti-Muslim attacks. While many incidents are not reported to the police, groups such as the Tell Mama project paint a worrying picture of rising Islamophobia and violence.’

Huffington Post: Muswell Hill mosque attack could be retaliation for Lee Rigby murder. ‘A Somali cultural centre has been burnt to the ground amid fears it was targeted in retaliation for the Woolwich murder of Drummer Lee Rigby. Counter-terror police launched an investigation into the blaze after the letters EDL – apparently referencing the English Defence League – were found scrawled on the wrecked building in Muswell Hill.’

The Guardian: Counter-terrorism police arrest man over extremist material. ‘Counter-terrorism police have made a further arrest as part of an investigation into the dissemination of extremist material in the aftermath of the murder of Lee Rigby. The arrest follows the arrest and charge of Abu Nusaybah after an appearance on the BBC’s Newsnight programme.’

BBC News: Woolwich murder suspect’s video link to court cut. ‘One of the men accused of the murder of Drummer Lee Rigby had his video link to court cut after repeatedly interrupting the judge. Michael Adebolajo, 28, continually attempted to interject in the pre-trial hearing to complain about the way he says he has been treated. He told the court: “I am a man, I am a soldier, I am a British citizen.”’

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News from Western Europe, Thursday 6th June 2013

EUROPE

EU Observer: EU countries working on new laws against would-be jihadists. ‘EU counter-terrorism co-ordinator de Kerchove has said member states are creating new criminal penalties for Europeans who go to fight in holy wars. “We have to make sure that the 27 member states have … a specific offence of going abroad for jihad,” he told press on Wednesday’

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News from Central and Eastern Europe, Thursday 6th June 2013

BULGARIA

Reuters: Bulgaria says Hezbollah’s role in bus bombing unproven. ‘Bulgaria backed down on Wednesday from charges it made a few months ago that Hezbollah was behind a deadly bus bombing on its territory, complicating a British push for the EU to blacklist the militant Shi’ite Muslim group.

The country’s new Socialist-led government said it only had an “indication” that the Lebanese group might have carried the attack that killed five Israeli tourists and their driver in the Black Sea resort of Burgas last year.

This alone, Foreign Minister Kristian Vigenin said, did not justify any European Union move to list it as a terrorist group.’

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